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New Advances in Three-Dimensional Endoscopic Surgery
The indications for minimally invasive surgery continue to expand worldwide, with endoscopic surgery currently regarded as standard treatment in many surgical fields. The prototype of a three-dimensional [3D] system for endoscopic surgery was developed during the early 1990s to overcome the lack of depth perception on a twodimensional [2D] display. The prototype, however, was not widely used because of the poor quality of the image and visual side effects. Advances in the technology have now allowed the development of 3D endoscopic systems with high-definition resolution that are commercially available. We discuss the development, basic studies, present status, and future of 3D endoscopic systems, including their advantages and disadvantages. Although further improvements are needed for more advanced surgery, the rapid advances being experienced in 3D endoscopic system will hopefully overcome the remaining problems quickly and provide the ultimate version of minimally invasive surgery.
Menno de Braak
Development team

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